Valle del Mezquital

Cooperación Comunitaria

En 2013, comenzamos el proyecto de Reconstrucción Integral del Hábitat para disminuir la vulnerabilidad de las comunidades afectadas por los huracanes Ingrid y Manuel en la alta Montaña de Guerrero.

Los huracanes de ese año, fueron devastadores para las poblaciones de la región de la Montaña, por lo que a solicitud del poeta Hubert Matiùwáa, CC acudió para acompañar a las comunidades Me’phaa en un proceso de reconstrucción. Durante este proceso se ha trabajado en el restablecimiento de las estructuras o viviendas dañadas, la recuperación de las milpas y la restauración ambiental para evitar los deslaves mediante la recuperación de la vivienda tradicional de adobe, así como en la identificación y disminución de riesgos como son los deslaves, sismos y vientos fuertes de la región.

El proceso de reconstrucción involucra de manera activa a las comunidades, lo que ha generado la restitución de los lazos comunitarios. Esto ha permitido reactivar la organización y las actividades productivas de la región. Un proceso que hasta ahora continúa y que ha dado frutos en la autogestión de diversas comunidades quienes autoconstruyen espacios comunitarios de formación, así como espacios productivos, educativos y de vivienda a través de los sistemas constructivos tradicionales realizados con materiales locales.

Después de responder a la emergencia durante los primeros tres años, actualmente nos enfocamos en fortalecer la organización, apoyo mutuo y autogestión de la población a través de talleres sobre producción social del hábitat; además de continuar con los talleres enfocados en disminuir la vulnerabilidad territorial. Como parte de este proceso, llevamos a cabo diagnósticos, análisis de riesgo y diseño participativo para la reconstrucción de viviendas en las comunidades, así como diversos centros comunitarios que fortalecen procesos educativos ligados a las culturas originarias de la montaña de Guerrero.

A lo largo de ocho años, el proyecto ha involucrado la participación de más de 3 mil 437 personas de 12 comunidades de la Región Montaña. Se han realizado múltiples actividades formativas para fortalecer las capacidades constructivas, productivas, territoriales y socioculturales de las y los participantes, trabajadores de la construcción y promotores.

El proceso integral de reconstrucción social del hábitat ha logrado el reconocimiento del trabajo de CC en la región y con ello que regrese la confianza en el adobe como un sistema constructivo resistente a los sismos y vientos fuertes de la región. Los sistemas constructivos de adobe realizados con materiales locales vuelven asequibles las construcciones, se adaptan a la cultura del lugar, brindan mayor calidad de vida y tienen mayores beneficios económicos y ambientales

Durante el proceso nos hemos vinculado con diversos grupos organizados que buscan el mejoramiento del hábitat de sus comunidades, lo cual ha generado la autoproducción y autoconstrucción de 68 viviendas reforzadas de adobe, 3 Centros Comunitarios, 2 Centros de supervisión para la eduación preescolar indígena, 1 aula ambiental en la Universidad Intercultural del Estado de Guerrero, 1 bodega para el Centro Comunitario de Mexcaltepec en el municipio de Acatepec con Enlace AC, 1 comedor-cocina en la Primaria Intercultural de Xochistlahuaca, 137 estufas ahorradoras de leña autoproducidas por mujeres, y 29 baños transformadores de materia orgánica. .

Con la Universidad Intercultural del Estado de Guerrero establecimos un convenio en donde compartimos nuestros aprendizajes en torno a la recuperación de saberes constructivos tradicionales, así como biotecnologías con materiales locales que reducen la vulnerabilidad de dichas comunidades. Hemos impartido cursos de ecotecnias para 700 alumnos.

El intercambio de saberes es parte del proceso de reconstrucción social por lo que hemos trabajado en sesiones de gestión integral del riesgo para disminuir la vulnerabilidad de la población ante los deslizamientos, a través de técnicas para la restauración ambiental con bienes maderables; de construcción reforzada y uso de ecotecnias, como las cocinas ahorradoras de leña, baños secos y captación de lluvia; además de la recuperación de la milpa orgánica, que contribuye a evitar la profunda erosión del suelo que identificamos en el territorio. A la par, hemos realizado con 6 comunidades cartografía participativa para identificar el riesgo por deslave y 11 cápsulas radiofónicas en español y en mé’ phàà para sensibilizar a la población sobre estos temas, relacionados con la producción social del hábitat.

Durante estos 8 años, el trabajo participativo, nos ha permitido aprender y profundizar en los conocimientos sobre el contexto, al contar con elementos comparativos entre regiones y grupos etnolingüísticos diversos (mè’phàà y ñomndaa), a través del diálogo de saberes.

Los aprendizajes generados en el proceso, más allá de todo lo construido, han dejado capacidades instaladas para construir de manera más segura y con más calidad. Los procesos de diseño participativo, planeación y organización con las participantes, han permitido generar viviendas y estufas adaptadas a sus necesidades y por lo tanto, que su uso y mantenimiento sean más apegados a su realidad cultural, lo que contribuye a disminuir sus vulnerabilidades.

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